This section covers more contemporary topics relating to Indigenous Peoples in Canada.
Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls, & Two-Spirit (MMIWG) is a human rights concern today. Indigenous women, girls, and Two-Spirit people experience higher rates of violence and many have been found missing or murdered. In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission supported a call for a nationwide public inquiry into violence against Indigenous women and girls. On June 3, 2019, the final report of the National Inquiry was completed and made available to the public (Canadian Encyclopedia).
Source: Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in Canada (Canadian Encyclopedia)
A person who possesses both a male and feminine spirit is referred to as two-spirit which comes from the term niizh manidoowag in Anishinaabemowin. The word was coined in 1990 by activist Albert McLeod to refer to Indigenous peoples who are part of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Some Indigenous peoples refer to their gender, sexual orientation, and spiritual identity as being two-spirit (Canadian Encyclopedia).
Source: Two-Spirit (Canadian Encyclopedia)
Economic reconciliation involves setting right economic injustices that Indigenous Peoples experience as a result of a history of colonization. It aims to provide economic equality for Indigenous Peoples and economic revitalization of their communities (Vancouver Economic).
Source: Economic Reconciliation (Vancouver Economic)
Environmental racism refers to the increased exposure of racialized populations, including Indigenous communities, to hazardous materials and polluting industries. An example is the mercury contamination experienced in the Grassy Narrows First Nation, an Ojibwe First Nation and reserve located north of Kenora, Ontario (Canadian Encyclopedia).
Source: Environmental Racism in Canada (Canadian Encyclopedia)