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Learning Resources

This section provides links to documents and multimedia resources that support learning and discussion on topics such as: Truth and Reconciliation, Treaties and the Indian Act, Canadian Residential School System, M.M.I.W.G. and Indigenous Worldview.

This collection of videos and documents was created to help the college community incorporate Canadian Indigenous Relations and Indigenous worldview into the classroom. This place is meant to be a starting point or a stepping stone in personal and professional development. A place where you can begin to prepare yourself to have the knowledge to facilitate difficult conversations about the unethical actions of the Canadian government. Empowering yourself with this knowledge is a positive way to start taking the steps to reconcile Canada’s past and present state with ourselves, the land, the nation and Indigenous people.

The Honourable Senator Sinclair on Reconciliation

Tips for Facilitating

  • Familiarize yourself with the student supports at your institution should the conversations trigger any of the participants.
  • Be transparent and explain that the objective of this learning is to develop critical thinking and challenge personal and public thinking.
  • Set ground rules for respectful and engaged interaction.
  • Be a model of diplomacy by teaching your students to understand and appreciate different viewpoints.
  • Be proactive and ask the students how they are going to take care of themselves following the lessons and offer healthy suggestions.
  • Thank the students for being open and honest.
  • Consider using Indigenous Methodologies for facilitating conversations by using a talking stick -open in a new window or using a sharing circle -open in a new window.
  • Confederation College’s Diversity, Equity and Indigenous Lens Tool - Opens in a new window can help you evaluate if your programs and practices are free of elements that enable the exclusion of Indigenous peoples.

Resources to Support Learning about Indigenous Topics

Truth and Reconciliation (TRC)




General Information

The Robinson Treaties

The Numbered Treaties

The Indian Act


Canadian Residential School System

There were residential schools in Canada prior to Canadian Confederation. But it was the Indian Act of 1876 that gave the federal government the power to start the systematic process of assimilation of Indigenous people in Canada. The Canadian government did this in cooperation with the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches. In 1920 the Indian Act was amended making the attendance of Indigenous children mandatory to attend, “schools” which devalued their culture and religion.



Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (M.M.I.W.G.)

The National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (M.M.I.W.G.) and Their Voices will Guide Us  is a great way to facilitate critical thinking, to reflect and analyze the impacts of colonialism on Indigenous communities, and to discuss perceptions vs lived realities of Indigenous women, girls and the 2SLGBTQQIA. Through the information and activities outlined in this document you can introduce meaningful conversations and lessons into your classroom and workplace. Starting with sharing the important role that Indigenous women play in their families and the community at large, their strength and traditional responsibilities. We all have a duty to ensure the rights of women, girls and 2SLGBTQQIA are respected, protected, advocated for by pushing for social justice and reconciliation.


Indigenous Worldview

In this section I want to acknowledge that there are a variety of Indigenous subgroups across Turtle Island (North America) and that each one has its own customs, language, dialect and traditions. It is the responsibility of each individual to learn, build a relationship and appreciation for each region. We cannot assume that customs, traditions or protocols in each community are exactly the same, but there are parallels. The best way to learn what you want to know is to be humble and respectfully ask. Acknowledging your lack of knowledge is an admirable sign of humility.



Indigenous Languages

Algonquian Language Resources

The Algonquian Language Family is the largest spoken Language family in Ontario and all of Canada. While many of these languages like Blackfoot, dialects like Anishinaabemowin and Cree are more prevalent. Since the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 2015 and the United Nations Year of Indigenous Languages in 2019, many efforts have been taking place at a community and organizational level to try and revitalize and Indigenous language.

Iroquian Language Resources

The Iroquian Language Family is predominantly made up of the Indigenous Nation’s that make up the Six Nations Confederacy also known as the Haudensaune. These groups are identified the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora group form the Six Nations and the languages include Cayuga (two dialects), Kanyen'kéha/Mohawk (several dialects), Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora and Wendat.

Trauma Informed Facilitation