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As of February 8th, 2023, this page will no longer be updated and maintained. Some of the content of these pages has been redistributed to other sections of The Learning Portal. If you have any questions, please contact:


  • What is Copyright?Copyright is a law that protects the moral and economic rights of content creators. Use this page to learn more about copyright.
  • Copyright at your CollegeYour college can help you understand copyright and its implications. Find your college's copyright policy in the list of links on this page.
  • Cite your SourcesEven if the material you would like to use has a Creative Commons license or is in the public domain, you should always cite your sources.
  • Don't Take ShortcutsThe consequences of breaking copyright law can be severe. Always do the extra work to make sure you are staying within the boundaries of copyright law.

Other Licensing Models

Public Domain mark from Creative Commons website

Works in the public domain belong to the public and are free to use without permission.

Typically, copyright lasts for 50 years after the copyright owner has died - after that the work is in the public domain.

For example, the works of Shakespeare and Mozart are in the public domain and can be republished by others, without permission from a copyright owner. For more about the public domain, see: Government of Canada, About copyright. - Opens in a new window

You should still cite public domain content in your academic work. Although public domain content may be copyright free and citing is not legally required, citing all content that is the work of others is still required by most college Academic Integrity policies.

The licenses that Creative Commons produces make it easy for both creators and consumers to identify the legal options for the use, modification, or sale of creative works.

There are a variety of materials online that have a Creative Commons license (you can search by license here - Opens in new window. These licenses allow the use of material under certain conditions. You always have to cite your sources but there other conditions that may apply (like non-commercial use, or you’re not allowed to modify it, etc.).

Sites with Creative Commons materials include the following:

Additional Resources

Web Resources

There is no doubt that copyright can be complicated. If you have questions, make your college library your first stop!  See links to Ontario College copyright guides on this page.  And see the resources listed below to learn more. 

Books About Copyright

Check your library for any of these helpful titles: 

Copyright in Canada

What is Copyright?

Copyright is a law that protects moral and economic rights of content creators. Copyright has rights for both creators and users in an effort to create a balanced and fair use of copyrighted works. There are also exceptions available, such as fair dealing, consult your college's copyright policies to learn more.

In Canada, copyright protection is automatic upon the creation of a work. As soon as you produce something original in fixed form (written, video, audio on a CD, etc.) you own the copyright for that item (unless you’ve agreed to sign it over to someone else). Only the copyright owner has the right to decide when and how the work is used (from The Copyright Act Opens in new window).

And remember even if a work does not have a copyright symbol ©, the work is still protected under The Copyright Act.

What is Protected?

All original creative works are protected

This includes: 

  • artistic works such as drawings, engravings, paintings and photographs
  • computer/digital material like clip art, computer programs, databases, emails, blogs, wikis and websites
  • dramatic works including radio and television shows, films, plays and musicals
  • literary works such as books, magazines, pamphlets and newspapers
  • musical works such as arrangements, adaptations, sound recordings and sheet music

Copyright at Your College

Overview of Copyright Policies

What policies should I be aware of?

Check the list in the next tab to find your college's copyright policies. Policies differ from college to college so make sure you are following the proper guidelines.

A Warning

If you are found infringing on The Copyright Act you could:

Copyright in the Classroom

What is Fair Dealing?

Fair dealing is a section in the copyright act which permits the use of a copyrighted work without permission from the copyright owner. Fair Dealing allows you to copy a short excerpt from a copyright-protected work. Short excerpts mean you can copy up to 10 percent of a copyrighted work such as:

  • One chapter of a book
  • A single article from a periodical
  • An entire artistic work (including a painting, print, photograph, diagram, drawing, map, chart, and plan) from a copyright-protected work containing other artistic works
  • An entire newspaper article or page
  • An entire poem or single musical score from a copyright-protected work
  • Entire entry from an encyclopedia, annotated bibliography, or similar reference work

You can use these materials for the following purposes: research, private study, education, parody, satire, criticism, review or news reporting.

It is NOT fair to copy multiple short excerpts from the same copyright-protected work.

The 6 Fair Dealing Factors

You must consider the following Fair Dealing Factors before you copy or distribute a work:

  1. The purpose of the copying
    • Is the copying for one of the following purposes: education, research, private study, criticism or review, news reporting, parody or satire?
    • The copy is not meant to replace your course text
  2. The amount of the copying
    • How much is being copied? One chapter from a book or one article from a journal may be considered fair.
  3. The character of the copying
    • How broadly will the work be distributed? Will it be accessible only to eligible students?
  4. Alternatives to copying the work
    • Is the same or equivalent work available in the library databases? Is there a non-copyrighted alternative?
  5. The nature of the work
    • including whether it is published or unpublished
  6. The effect of the copying on the work
    • Will the copying undermine the market for the work?

Copyright and Films and Media

Films and media are shown in the classroom and can be used to help you write an assignment or in a presentation. There are a few things you need to know when using a film in your assignments.

Questions to ask before using a video in a classroom setting:

  • Was the video posted online by the copyright owner?
  • Does the site’s Terms of Use allow you to stream their videos for educational use?
  • Does the video contain copyrighted information from another source (for example, music, pictures, or charts)?
  • Is the video allowed to be shown in Canada? (there will be a message if it is not).
  • Is the video a commercial posted by someone other than the advertising company?
  • Has the video been available online for more than a few days? (companies often remove content immediately if it infringes copyright).

Digital Locks

A digital lock is also called technological protection measure (TPM) or digital rights management (DRM), and it is basically any technology that controls or restricts access to or copying of a work. The Copyright Act prohibits breaking or circumventing digital locks for the use of copyrighted works, even in cases where the use would be allowed under user exceptions such as fair dealing.

Examples of a digital lock on a film:

  • Special technology on a streaming video that restricts which country it can be viewed in.
  • In some cases, YouTube videos and videos from other video sharing sites may contain content that was not uploaded by the video's copyright owner and use of these videos is copyright infringement. Search for official versions of videos uploaded by the content creator.
  • You cannot make copies films, streaming videos at home and then show it in the classroom. This is an illegal download of a copyrighted work.