A citation style is a set of rules that specifies the format and content of a citation. Each style outlines a set of rules for authors to follow. Adherence to the rules is required to make a correct citation. Most academic disciplines have a preferred style, but the style you should use is usually specified by the instructor or noted in the assignment guidelines.
APA is often used in the following disciplines:
MLA is often used in the following disciplines:
Chicago is often used in the following disciplines:
Canadian Uniform Legal Citation is often used in the following discipline:
All major citation styles are comprised of a brief in-text citation, as well as a detailed list of cited sources at the end of the document; however, the method varies by citation style.
The chart below outlines the terminology used by each citation style. Remember to consult the citation style guide to check for any exceptions.
|Citation Style||In-Text Citation||List of Citations|
|MLA||Parenthetical Citation||Works Cited|
Sample papers - Opens in a new window formatted in APA, MLA, and Chicago are available thanks to the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).
Parenthetical citations require you to place the necessary citation components into parentheses. For example: (Freud, 1930).
Footnotes require the use of numeric footnotes, which direct readers to the footer of the document. The footer contains the necessary citation components. For example, Schama3.
Reference Lists, Works Cited pages, and Bibliographies are all alphabetical lists of the sources used within a paper.