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Build Citations: sub-module 3 of 4 of how to cite

Citing is an academic way to thank the person whose information you used to support your research. Citing alerts the reader that an idea used in your paper was someone else’s. Referencing is a process of wayfinding, you provide the address, so that the reader is able to find the original source. Citing also prevents accusations of plagiarism or academic dishonesty

 

Who, When, What & Where

Think of a reference as a detailed address which the reader can use to find the source you used to support a point in your paper.

A complete reference many require the following information:

  • Who?Who published the source? Who is the author? (The 'author' could be a corporation, organization or government department, etc.".
  • When?When was the source published? What year? For a newspaper, journal, or magazine article you will also need the month, or month and date.
  • What?What is the complete title? For journal and newspaper articles you will also need the title of the publication in which it appears.
  • Where?Where was the source published? It is in print or online? For books, what is the city of publication?

Creating references for a variety of sources (Examples)

You will find the most common examples of APA References below. This is not a exhaustive list, so refer to your college library guide for a comprehensive overview.

Books

Author's Last Name, First Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if any. City of Publication: Publisher.

Note: List any other authors as they are listed on the book.

Example

Martin, S. (2010). Take a look: Observation and portfolio assessment in early childhood. Toronto, ON: Pearson

eBooks

Author's Last Name, First Initial, Second Initial if any. (Year of Publication). Title of ebook. [Ebook provider]. Retrieved from ebook provider's URL.

Example

Connelly, J., & Forsyth, P. (2012). Essay writing skills: Essential techniques to gain top marks. [Ebsco Ebook Collection]. Retrieved from http://login.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=430348&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_Cove

Edited book, no author

Editor's Last Name, First Initial, Second Initial if any. (Eds.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. City of Publication, Province or State Code: Publisher.

Example

Fetherling, G. (Ed.). (2001). The vintage book of Canadian memoirs. Toronto, ON: Vintage Canada

Journal Articles from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial if any. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL.

Note: if there is not DOI on the article, put Retrieved from and then use the permanent link to the article.

Example(s)

Harwood, N. & Petric, B. (2011). Performance in the citing behavior of two student writers. Written Communication, 29(1), 55-103. doi:10.1177/0741088311424133

Journal Articles with six or more authors

First Author's Last Name, First Initial., Second Author's Last Name, First Initial., Third Author's& Last Name, First Initial., Fourth Author's Last Name, First Initial., Fifth Author's Last Name, First Initial, Sixth Author's Last Name, First Initial . . . Last Author's& Last Name, First Initial., (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if given. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL.

Example(s)

Hobday, A. J., Young, J. W., Abe, O., Costa, D. P., Cowen, R. K., Evans, K., & ... Weng, K. C. (2013). Climate impacts and oceanic top predators: Moving from impacts to adaptation in oceanic systems. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries, 23(4), 537-546. doi: 10.1007/s11160-013-9311-0

Note: List the first six author's listed in the article followed by three spaced ellipses to show information is missing, and then the last author's name.

Websites with a known author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from URL.

Example(s)

Thornhill, D. (2014). Made by daryl. Retrieved from http://www.madebydaryl.co.uk/

Websites with a group or corporate author

Group or Corporate Name. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from URL.

Example(s)

Canadian Cancer Society. (2017). How we can help? Retrieved from http://www.cancer.ca/en/support-and-services/support-services/how-we-can-help/?region=on

No Author, No Date

Title of document. (n.d.). Retrieved from URL.

Example(s)

What is physics? (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=18.

Note: If there is no identifiable date, put (n.d.) in place of the year to show you couldn't find a date.

PowerPoint Slides

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of presentation. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from name of content managament software

Example

Smith, J. (2017). Cite your sources using APA Style. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from SLATE

Course Packs

Author of Article or Chapter's Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial if given. (Year of course pack's publication). Title of chapter or article in course pack. In First Initial. Last Name of Course Instructor who created course pack if given (Comp.)., Title of course pack (pp. first page-last page number of chapter/article). City of Publication, Province Code: Name of College.

Example

Bigelow, B., & Peterson, B. (2016). Rethinking globalization: Teaching our justice in an unjust world. In J. Fraser (Comp.), Exploring our global village: Readings CULT 14857G (33-37). Brampton, ON: Sheridan College.

Note: The best way to cite course packs is to treat them as a chapter in an edited book.

Print Handouts

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. (Year handout was created if given or n.d.). Title of handout [Class handout]. City course is located in, ON: College Name, Course code.

Example

Smith, J. (2017). Effective Google searching [Class handout]. Oakville, ON: Sheridan College, LIFE 1000.

YouTube video

Author's Last Name, First Initial or user name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video. [Video file]. Retrieved from video link.

Example

The Learning Portal/Le Portail d’Apprentissage. (2017, January 24). Types of paragraphs in an academic essay. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/TforwSE7ow0

Streaming video from a Library Database

Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day if available). Title of video. [Video file]. Retrieved from Library Database name.

Example

O'Neil Hughes, B. (2017). Lightroom and Photoshop: Workflow strategies. [Video file]. Retrieved from Lynda.com

DVD

Producer/Writer/Director's Last Name, First Initial. (Role in Video Production, Producer/Writer/Director). (Year DVD was released). Title of DVD. [DVD]. City of Publication, Province Code or State Code: DVD Distributor if known.

Example

Huston, J. (Director). (1941). The Maltese falcon. [DVD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

Newspapers and Magazines from the web

Author's Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine. Retrieved from URL.

Example

Van Bastelaer, S. (2017, March 28). Is it time to take your snow tires off? The Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/starweather/2017/03/is-it-time-to-take-your-snow-tires-off-.html

Newspapers and Magazines from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine, p. page number or section number. Retrieved from persistent link from Library Database.

Example

Ahsan, S. (2016, June 22). All access: Toronto's tangled art gallery is bringing so-called outsiders in.The National Post.p. B.8. Retrieved from http://login.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/docview/1798936725?accountid=3455

Blogs

Author's Last Name, First Initial or Username if name not given. (Year blog was published, Month Day). Title of blog post [Web log post]. Retrieved from URL.

Example

McAdoo, T. (2015, April 15). Re: Using italics for technical (or key) terms. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2015/04/using-italics-for-technical-or-key-terms.html

Note: If the real name of the person who created the blog post isn't given, provide their user name in the author field.

Twitter

Twitter user name. (Year, Month Day of tweet). Text of the tweet. [Twitter post]. Retrieved from Twitter account URL.

Example

APA Style. (2017, January 8). Will you be writing any #APAStyle papers this semester? Free APA style tutorials, sample papers and more at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/09/best-of-the-apa-style-blog-2016-edition.html. [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/APA_Style

Podcasts

Director/Producer/Podcast Host Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial if available. (Role in podcast e.g. Host, Director, Producer). Title of episode: Subtitle [Audio Podcast]. Name of Podcast. Retrieved from URL.

Example

Gilbert, E. (Host). (2015 July 13). Do what ignites your soul [Audio Podcast]. Magic Lessons. Retrieved from http://podbay.fm/show/1018969048/e/1436813857?autostart=1

The most common MLA Works Cited examples. This is not a exhaustive list, so refer to your college library guide for a comprehensive overview.

Books

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example

Martin, Sue. Take a Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood. Pearson, 2010.

eBooks

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Ebook. Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Library Database. E-Book URL.

Example

Connelly, Jacqueline and Forsyth, Patrick. Essay writing skills: Essential techniques to gain top marks. Kogan Page, 2012. Ebsco Ebook Collection, http://login.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=430348&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Edited books

Editor's Last Name, First Initial, Second Initial if any. (Eds.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. City of Publication, Province or State Code: Publisher.

Example

Fetherling, George, editor. The Vintage Book of Canadian Memoirs. Vintage Canada, 2010.

Journal Articles from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, Name. "Title of article." Title of Journal, vol. number, no. number, Year. Name of Library Database, URL or DOI.

Note: if there is not DOI on the article, then use the permanent link to the article as the URL.

Example

Harwood, Nigel. & Petric, Bojana. "Performance in the Citing Behavior of Two Student Writers." Written Communication, vol. 29, no. 1, 2012. Sage Journals, doi:10.1177/0741088311424133

Journal Articles with 3 or more authors

First Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. "Title of article: Subtitle if given." Title of Journal, vol. number, no. number, Year, pp. page numbers. Name of Database, DOI or URL.

Example(s)

Hobday, Alistair, et al. "Climate impacts and oceanic top predators: Moving from impacts to adaptation in oceanic systems." Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries, vol. 23, no. 4, 2013, pp. 537-546. Springer, doi:10.1007/s11160-013-9311-0.

Websites with a known author

Author's Last Name, First Name."Title of document." Title of Website, Year, URL.

Example

Mitchell, Sandra, D. "The Import of Uncertainty." PhilSci Archive, 2000, philsci-archive.pitt.edu/162/.

Websites with a group or corporate author

Group or Corporate Name. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from URL.

Example

Canadian Cancer Society. "How we can help?" Canadian Cancer Society, 2017, http://www.cancer.ca/en/support-and-services/support-services/how-we-can-help/?region=on.

No Author, No Date

"Title of document." Title of Website, Year, URL.

Example

"Does anyone understand Quantum Mechanics?" Physics.org, 2009, http://www.physics.org/featuredetail.asp?id=33.

PowerPoint Slides

Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture/PowerPoint slides." Date of Presentation, Course Name, Faculty Name, Name of School. Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation.

Example

Smith, J. (2017). Cite your sources using APA Style. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from SLATE

Course Packs

Author of Article or Chapter's Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial if given. (Year of course pack's publication). Title of chapter or article in course pack. In First Initial. Last Name of Course Instructor who created course pack if given (Comp.)., Title of course pack (pp. first page-last page number of chapter/article). City of Publication, Province Code: Name of College.

Example

Bigelow, B., & Peterson, B. (2016). Rethinking globalization: Teaching our justice in an unjust world. In J. Fraser (Comp.), Exploring our global village: Readings CULT 14857G (33-37). Brampton, ON: Sheridan College.

Note: The best way to cite course packs is to treat them as a chapter in an edited book.

Print Handouts

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. (Year handout was created if given or n.d.). Title of handout [Class handout]. City course is located in, ON: College Name, Course code.

Example

Smith, J. (2017). Effective Google searching [Class handout]. Oakville, ON: Sheridan College, LIFE 1000.

Online video from YouTube, Hulu, Vimeo, etc.

"Title of Video." Tile of Website, uploaded by Author's First and Last Name or Username. Day Month Year, URL.

Example

"Avoiding Plagiarism." YouTube, uploaded by Sheridan Library, 25 August 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qP0WRY_evs

Streaming video from a Library Database

"Title of Video." Publisher/Production Company, Date. Title of Library Database.

Example

"Secret Life of Twins." BBC, 2015, Films on Demand.

DVD

Title of Film. Directed by First Name Last Name. Performances by First Name Last Names, Production Company. Year of Release.

Example

The Maltese Falcon Directed by John Huston. Performances by Humphrey Bogart and Mary Astor, Warner Brothers Entertainment. 1941.

Newspapers and Magazines from the web

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper or Magazine, Day Month Year, URL.

Example

Ahsan, Sadaf. "Tangled, Toronto's first accessible art gallery for disabled artists, is bringing the outsiders in." The National Post, 21 June 2016, http://news.nationalpost.com/arts/tangled-torontos-first-accessible-art-gallery-for-disabled-artists-is-bringing-the-outsiders-in.

Newspapers and Magazines from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper, Day Month Year, pp. number. Name of Database, URL.

Example

Chen, Dalson. "U of W battles plagiarism; 35 cases last semester." The Windsor Star, 08 February 2013, pp. A1, Canadian Newsstand.

Blogs

Author's Last Name, First Name or Username. "Title of Blog Post." Name of Blog, Blog Publisher if available, Day Month Year of Blog Post, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Example

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology, Scientific American Blogs, 27 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/, Accessed 31 March 2017.

Twitter

Twitter Username (First Name Last Name if known). "The entire Tweet." Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.

Example

Centennial College. "There’s a reason they call it a movement. Get ready to shake things up, starting April 3. #Amazing50 #Centennial50." Twitter, 31 March 2017, 9:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/CentennialEDU/status/847798220268998657.

Podcasts

Host's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast, Episode Number if given, Day Month Year, URL. Access date (Optional).

Example

Hardwick, Chris. "Anna Kendrick Returns." Nerdist, Episode 837, 8 November 2016, nerdist.com/nerdist-podcast-anna-kendrick-returns/. Accessed 31 March 2017.

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Ontario College Citation Guides

If you’re struggling with your citations, don’t worry! There’s lots of help available.

  • Start with your own college’s citation help resources. You’ll find the links below. Many college libraries provide citation examples for different formats (e.g. journals, websites, YouTube videos, etc.), and quick reference PDF guides that you can print or download. Feel free to check out other college’s help pages if you’re not finding what you need.

  • There is also lots of citation instruction and assistance online. You’ll find links to a few websites and YouTube channels below.

Two Step Citation Process

Every single use of someone else’s work in your paper must be acknowledged. You do this by adding an in-text citation, sometimes called a parenthetical reference (which means in parenthesis), right before or after the use of someone else’s idea. 

An in-text citation is a short indication of someone else’s work, embedded right in the body of your paper.  Information typically included in an in-text citation is (author year page number), but this is style dependent. 

Here are two examples of in-text citations:

  • APA: (Jones, 2016) for paraphrases, or (Jones, 2016, p.139) for direct quotes
  • MLA: (Jones 139) for paraphrases and direct quotes  

Every single in-text citation must have a corresponding full reference/works cited entry at the end of the paper. You have to have both an in-text citation and a detailed reference in order for the citation to be complete.

For more instructions and examples for in-text citations, please see your college citation guide, or refer to Seneca's In-Text Citation pages:

The References/Works Cited page contains detailed information about a particular source. This detailed reference is on a separate page at the end of your paper. It is arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. Be sure to double check capitalization and punctuation for the citation style you are using. 

Tips for creating a reference list or works cited page

  1. List each source (such as journal articles, books, websites) that you used in your paper
  2. Each source must be listed in alphabetical order by author's last name. If there is no identifiable author for a source cite it by title.
  3. Indent the second and following lines of each reference entry
  4. Must be double spaced
  5. Must be a separate page at the end of your assignment

Note: refer to the citation manual or style guide for correct punctuation and capitalization

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Locating information in a citation - creating a reference

Sometimes it’s hard to know where to look to find the information you need to create a citation. Different types of sources require different information to be included in the reference page.


This information is usually one of the first things you can locate pretty easily. If you are looking at a book, the author(s) can be found on the front cover. Journal articles have author(s) listed on the first page of the article or on the title page if there is one.

When looking at websites, it’s hard to know where to locate the author. Do a bit of digging. Is there an about us/me section? Is the author listed by the last modified or copyright date on the bottom of the page. Is there a logo? Sometimes the author of a website can be a corporation or an organization. We call these corporate or group authors.

Sometimes publication dates can be found on the very first page of the article you are looking at. You may have to look around on both the top and bottom of the first page. 

Books include this info by the copyright symbol on the verso.

Websites can be tricky. Sometimes a last modified date is found on the bottom of the page. This can also be a copyright date. If there is no identifiable date, it’s perfectly acceptable to put (n.d.). This indicates there is no date found on the page you are looking at.

This can get confusing for many people. You want to make sure you know what you are citing. Most of the time, you will want to record the title of what you are looking at whether it’s the title of the book or the particular page you are looking at on a website. Usually that’s all you need and these are italicized in the reference. However, when you are citing journal, newspaper and magazine articles, you have to include both the title of the article and the title of journal/newspaper/magazine. These are usually italicized on the reference page instead of the title of the article.

DOI stands for digital object identifier. 

A DOI is a unique number assigned to journal articles only. It acts as a URL to that particular article. Not all journal articles have a DOI. DOI information is easily identifiable. It almost always includes the words DOI followed by a combination of letters or numbers. It’s usually on the first page of the journal article but can also be found beside the title of the journal. 

Don’t panic if information is missing in a citation. Some citation styles are pretty flexible when it comes to missing information.

Sometimes a journal may not include a volume or an issue number, and that’s perfectly fine. It’s okay to leave that information out.

Work with what you have available to you. If it’s not there, no need to include anything.

This is not the case for publication dates. If there is no date, simply put (n.d.) in place of a year. 

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